Long Covid Analysed
Long Covid Analysed Podcast
Why would Naltrexone help symptoms in Long Covid
Why would Naltrexone help symptoms in Long Covid
Could this be related to bacterial toxins?

Naltrexone is a medication primarily used to treat alcohol and opioid dependence by reducing cravings and feelings of euphoria. It belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid antagonists, which work by blocking the effects of opioids in the brain.

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Opioid receptors are distributed throughout the body, with varying densities in different regions. They are mainly in the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, as well as in peripheral tissues.

In the CNS, opioid receptors are located in several brain regions involved in pain modulation, reward, and other physiological functions. The three main types of opioid receptors are:

  1. Mu (μ) receptors: Mu receptors are widely distributed throughout the CNS and are associated with the analgesic (pain-relieving) effects of opioids.

  2. Delta (δ) receptors: Delta receptors are also present in the CNS, but they are less abundant compared to mu receptors.

  3. Kappa (κ) receptors: Kappa receptors are primarily located in the CNS, particularly in regions involved in pain perception, mood regulation, and stress responses.

This Italian research below, indicates that the viral spike protein seems to have bacteriophage properties, meaning it is able to infect bacteria. This characteristic seems to impact on the ability of some bacteria to produce toxins.

Brogna C, Cristoni S, Petrillo M, Querci M, Piazza O, Van den Eede G. Toxin-like peptides in plasma, urine and faecal samples from COVID-19 patients. F1000Res. 2021 Oct 14;10:550. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.54306.2. PMCID: PMC8772524.

The frequency and types of conotoxins noted in the blood and serum of patients with long Covid is staggering. Not sure we have seen anything like this previously.


Conotoxins: Conotoxins are small peptides produced by cone snails. Some conotoxins have been found to selectively target and modulate opioid receptors. For instance, certain conotoxins can act as agonists (activators) or antagonists (blockers) of opioid receptors, influencing their function and potentially altering pain perception or other opioid-related processes.

Could this be a significant factor in the patterns of long Covid symptoms?

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